Archaeologists have been conducting investigations at Ashland since 1990. This archaeology began with survey work around the main house and close up work around the foundation of the main house and standing privy in preparation for renovations in 1992. Additional archaeology from 2000 to 2008 was geared toward a better understanding of Ashland as a plantation site, and so the entire 17-acre grounds were surveyed, and select outbuildings excavated.

Archaeology at Ashland has provided information needed to assist in restorations and maintenance. Examples include work around foundations about to be restored, or in areas where water lines needed to be installed. Additional archaeology has been conducted to provide information about the overall layout of the grounds, and the location of outbuildings and work areas, and to provide a sample of material culture that can provide insights into 19th century domestic life at Ashland.